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Professional Discourse & Communication

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Vol 1, No 1 (2019)
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https://doi.org/10.24833/2687-0126-2019-1-1

9-20
Abstract

This paper is devoted to basic functional-linguistic analysis of modern English professional and business discourse. The aim of this paper is to look at the phenomenon of modern English professional discourse from a functional-linguistic perspective to discuss key elements of verbal interaction that define rhetorical uniqueness of this type of communication and combine traditions, standards and conventional nature with enough freedom for speakers to express themselves and be creative in composing texts of their own. The author sums up different approaches to the definition of professional communication, singles out and describes major functional features of this type of verbal interaction: goal-setting, functional loading of professional communication, typical participants, chronotopos, forms of verbal behaviour, role and status relations, pragmatic conventions and standardization, etiquette, functional differences between official and semi-official professional discourse, peculiarities of written communication. All the above mentioned functional features of modern English professional discourse impose severe limitations on the speech arsenal available to people. Basic functionallinguistic analysis of discursive fragments reveals what aspects should be further elaborated on in terms of improving the process of strategic planning of speech, selecting proper linguistic means to cause appropriate pragmatic impact on listeners/ readers, work out ways to increase efficiency of rhetoric.

21-35
Abstract

The article raises the problems of the status-oriented discourse typology. The essence of them lies in the fact that there exist several terminological nominations of such general type of the discourse, namely “institutional discourse”, “business discourse”, “expert discourse”, “specialized discourse”, “professional discourse”. These terminological nominations often overlap giving the effect of vagueness of a certain term. The genre versatility of the texts pertaining to some discourse cluster of a specialized (i.e. involving certain special knowledge at least from the part of one of the discourse participants) character is such a case. More than that, we often meet the same authors using different terms from the list above. Still, the authors of the article consider these terms to denote different essences differentiating not only from the nominative point of view, but ontologically as well. First, they are sure to denote hierarchically different levels of the status-oriented discourse. Second, they are sure to present peculiar to a certain types of a discourse categorical status of the communicants. Third, the coordination of oral and written discourse genres is bound to be peculiar to a certain kind of the discourse. All these considerations predetermine the common efforts of linguists to conduct systemic research of the problem.

36-45
Abstract

The aim of the article is to describe the trends ongoing in modern economic discourse. Economic discourse is considered to be a part of business discourse texts united by the topic of commerce and economic relations. The author looks into speech influence means used by the participants of online communication in social media posts. The work is carried out in the framework of functional pragmatic paradigm. Studying the correlation between the speech forms and their functions, this approach allows to identify the main speech strategies and tactics used by specialists in economics and ordinary people discussing economic issues. The tactic of assessment is the object of the current study. The excerpts from social media involving debate on single market issue were chosen by method of continuous sampling. They included the posts from accounts of European Union Commission, EU Finance, Confederation of British Industry, BBC Politics et al. The author singles out speech means characterizing the phenomenon from a positive and negative perspective. They are treated as a reflection of collective consciousness of Europeans and demonstrate an attitude of doubt and skepticism towards the single market. To conclude, online communication in the field of economics and business proves to be a valuable object for linguistic research. New mass media play an important role in formation of discourse field and a powerful tool for expressing public opinion.

46-54
Abstract

The present work is devoted to the phenomenon of polysemy and to the issue of translation of English polysemantic termsin professional economic discourse. The paper presentsthe analysis of terms used in the economic and banking fields. The authors consider banking terminology as a system and show that systemic relations are important in organizing a special type of professional discourse. The objective of the research is to reveal the significance of correct and accurate rendering of terms for the effectiveness of intercultural professional communication. Particular attention in the paper is paid to the study of the meanings of economic terms listed in English and English-Russian terminological dictionaries. The authors conclude that the compilers of dictionaries often complicate the process of translation by including not only specific terminological meanings but also general language ones from different areas and fields. This causes “false polysemy”, hampers comprehension and the correct usage of terms. The methods of definitional and contextual analysis, interpretation, the method of comparison and opposition of concepts, and that of description have been made use of.

55-69
Abstract

Research into professional discourse is closely connected with the multilayer analysis of ESP within the cognitive linguistic framework. It is very important to consider the anthropocentric focus of the cognitive discursive paradigm and the special attention traditionally paid to the linguistic representation of certain mental structures which serve as a basis for professional communication. Medical discourse studies have a lot to do with the communicative activity involving human life and health, that is why medical discourse needs to be analyzed from the viewpoints of anthropocentric and functional linguistic approaches, as research into various kinds of verbal interactions encompasses both professional communication among specialists and patient-doctor communication, a patient functioning simultaneously as the subject and the recipient of medical aid. As far as specific mental structures are concerned, verbal expressiveness depends on the functional properties of corresponding language units, their pragmatic and communicative characteristics, which tend to be manifested in conceptual metaphorical representation. The aim of this article is to analyze vast empirical material and single out the most significant cognitive linguistic peculiarities of modern English medical discourse. Cognitive linguistic approach allows scientists to define the essence of professional languages as well as to contemplate other research prospects in the context of medical discourse analysis.

70-82
Abstract

Various philosophical and linguistic aspects of the notion of ‘concept’ are considered and exemplified by revealing and systematizing verbal markers of the concept of ‘medicine’ in English medical discourse. The present research is motivated by the current renovations within the modern medical paradigm and by the application of new medical terms registered both in dictionaries or reference books for medical professionals and in popular newspaper articles. The adequate interpretation of different visions of the notion of ‘concept’ in the classical studies by linguistic and philosophical authors contributes to identifying the key verbal characteristics of the concept of ‘medicine’ in English discourse. The analysis of lexicographic discourse reveals the semantic parameters of medical terminological markers according to which they are grouped into monosemantic and multivalued language units. Furthermore, the etymological aspects of the verbal units under consideration are also described. Multivalued terminological units are characterized by a significant semantic potential and are considered as a reliable basis for further semantic development of modern English vocabulary. Within the English educational discourse, the concept of ‘medicine’ is verbalized by medical linguistic markers concerning proper nutrition, daily schedule and health destructive factors. The studies of media resources referring to the concept of ‘medicine’show that advertising of medical treatment or pills providing for a healthy life-style is usually accompanied by anti-advertising of medical products harmful for human health. The description of medical terms within the frames of lexicographic, educational, and massmedia sources contributes to a valid interpretation of the ‘medicine’ concept in modern English worldview, which is of vital importance today since valid comprehension of modern medical problems in terms of its successes and failures contributes to effective critical thinking training schemes and further development of both national and international philosophical culture.

83-98
Abstract

The purpose of this paper is the analysis of German mass media texts to investigate into hedge approximators. Synonymous analytical constructions eine Art … (a kind of); so etwas wie …; (so) etwas Ähnliches wie … are used to achieve certain pragmatic purposes the discourse of mass media. The most frequent word combination is eine Art... . The structural organization of such combinations is regulated by specific rules. The majorities of nominal groups of the eine Art N type without an attribute preceding the main component (eine Art Glück) do not allow to determine the case of the second noun in modern German. Nouns of all three genders, including noun of the weak type of declination, do not have inflexions. The case form of the main word in the phrase is revealed by expanding the cluster with an attribute. The basic types of such constructions are constructions with the genitive case (eine Art gemeinsamen Traums), construction with the preposition von and a noun in the dative case (eine Art von gemeinsamem Traum) and constructions with the case agreement between the two parts of the nominal group (in einer Art gemeinsamem Traum). The distribution of these types of constructions in the contemporary German language is determined in essence by grammatical factors, namely by the oblique form of the “auxiliary” noun and also by the number and by the semantic class of the second noun. All three synonymous clusters are used both with concrete and abstract nouns. These hedge markers make possible for authors of articles to limit the degree of confidence or doubt about the authenticity of the described fact, since sometimes there is no information about the nominated object, the risks of an erroneous statement being significantly minimized. Hedge markers show that the author is detached, careful, diplomatic and aims at avoiding conflictual situations.

99-110
Abstract

Successful interaction across cultures requires cultural awareness and cultural intelligence which help the participants of communication select effective verbal and nonverbal means to realize their communicative intention. The paper addresses communicative strategies of representatives of different cultures in similar communicative situations. The author shows conclusively that though the Americans and the British share the same language their communicative behavior differs in typical situations of business interaction, which makes them use different verbal and nonverbal means to achieve their communicative goals. Due to the cultural differences, Russian speaking students need to be taught these differences to achieve cultural intelligence.



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ISSN 2687-0126 (Online)